Λοιπον αυτο ειναι ενα αρθρο για το συνθετο μετατραυματικο αγχωτικο συνδρομο το οποιο δεν προκαλειται απο ενα μεμονωμενο γεγονος οπως το γνωστο μετατραυματικο αγχωτικο συνδρομο, αλλα απο συνεχομενα τραυματικα γεγονοτα, εστω και αν αυτα εκλαμβανονται ως "μικρα". Το προσαρμοσα λιγο γιατι αναφεροταν το συγκεκριμενο πιο πολυ στο bullying. Oσοι ξερετε αγγλικα μπορει να σας ενδιαφερει και εχετε ζησει χρονια σε δυσλειτουργικες και χειριστικες οικογενειες οπου σας καταπατουσαν τα ορια και υπομενατε ψυχολογικη βια, και οχι μονο..


It's widely accepted that PTSD can result from a single, major, life-threatening event, as defined in DSM-IV. Now there is growing awareness that PTSD can also result from an accumulation of many small, individually non-life-threatening incidents. To differentiate the cause, the term "Complex PTSD" is used.

It seems that Complex PTSD can potentially arise from any prolonged period of negative stress in which certain factors are present, which may include any of lack of means of escape, entrapment, repeated violation of boundaries, betrayal, rejection, physical and psychological abuse, bewilderment, confusion, and - crucially - lack of control, loss of control and disempowerment. It is the overwhelming nature of the events and the inability (helplessness, lack of knowledge, lack of support etc) of the person trying to deal with those events that leads to the development of Complex PTSD. Situations which might give rise to Complex PTSD include bullying, harassment, abuse, domestic violence, stalking, long-term caring for a disabled relative, unresolved grief, exam stress over a period of years, mounting debt, contact experience, etc.

A key feature of Complex PTSD is the aspect of captivity. The individual experiencing trauma by degree is unable to escape the situation. Despite some people's assertions to the contrary, situations of domestic abuse and workplace abuse can be extremely difficult to get out of. In the latter case there are several reasons, including financial vulnerability, unavailability of jobs, partner unable to move, kids settled in school and you are unable or unwilling to move them.

Until recently, little (or no) attention was paid to the psychological harm caused by bullying and harassment. Misperceptions (usually as a result of the observer's lack of knowledge or lack of empathy) still abound: "It's something you have to put up with" (like rape or repeated sexual abuse?) and "Bullying toughens you up" (ditto).

One of the key symptoms of prolonged negative stress is reactive depression; this causes the balance of the mind to be disturbed, leading first to thoughts of, then attempts at, and ultimately, suicide. Sleeplessness, nightmares and replays are a common feature. The events are constantly relived; night-time and sleep do not bring relief as it becomes impossible to switch the brain off. Such sleep as is achieved is non-restorative and people wake up as tired, and often more tired, than when they went to bed. Fear, horror, chronic anxiety, and panic attacks are triggered by any reminder of the experience. Panic attacks, palpitations, sweating, trembling, ditto. Physical numbness (toes, fingertips, lips) is common, as is emotional numbness (especially inability to feel joy). Sufferers report that their spark has gone out and, even years later, find they just cannot get motivated about anything. Work, especially in the person's chosen field becomes difficult, often impossible, to undertake. Almost all report impaired memory; this may be partly due to suppressing horrific memories. The person becomes obsessed with resolving the traumatic experience which takes over their life, eclipsing and excluding almost every other interest. Feelings of withdrawal and isolation are common; the person just wants to be on their own and solitude is sought.
Emotional numbness, including inability to feel joy (anhedonia) and deadening of loving feelings towards others are commonly reported. One fears never being able to feel love again. There is constant fatigue and sleep tends to be unsatisfying, unrefreshing and non-restorative. On waking, the person often feels more tired than when they went to bed. Depressive feelings are worst early in the morning. Feelings of vulnerability may be heightened overnight. The person has an extremely short fuse and is often permanently irritated, especially by small insignificant events. The person frequently visualises a violent solution, eg arranging an accident for, or murdering the abuser; the resultant feelings of guilt tend to hinder progress in recovery. Concentration is impaired to the point of precluding preparation for legal action, study, work, or search for work. The person is on constant alert because their fight or flight mechanism has become permanently activated. The person has become hypersensitized and now unwittingly and inappropriately perceives almost any remark as critical.

Recovery from such a prolongued traumatic experience is measured in years. Some people never fully recover. For many, social life ceases and work becomes impossible; the overwhelming need to earn a living combined with the inability to work deepens the trauma.

Common symptoms of PTSD and Complex PTSD that sufferers report experiencing

* hypervigilance (feels like but is not paranoia)
* exaggerated startle response
* irritability
* sudden angry or violent outbursts
* flashbacks, nightmares, intrusive recollections, replays, violent visualisations
* triggers
* sleep disturbance
* exhaustion and chronic fatigue
* reactive depression
* guilt
* feelings of detachment
* avoidance behaviours
* nervousness, anxiety
* phobias about specific daily routines, events or objects
* irrational or impulsive behaviour
* loss of interest
* loss of ambition
* anhedonia (inability to feel joy and pleasure)
* poor concentration
* impaired memory
* joint pains, muscle pains
* emotional numbness
* physical numbness
* low self-esteem
* an overwhelming sense of injustice and a strong desire to do something about it

Associated symptoms of Complex PTSD

Shame, embarrassment, guilt, and fear are encouraged by the abuser, for this is how all abusers - including child sex abusers - control and silence their victims.

Marital disharmony: the target of abuse becomes obsessed with understanding and resolving what is happening and the experience takes over their life; partners become confused, irritated, bewildered, frightened and angry; separation and divorce are common outcomes.